Plant Layout and Construction
- Number of acres
- Hilly, rolling, or level landscaped
- Spaced or congested
- Exposures in all directions
- Drainage conditions
- Oily water and the storm water sewer systems
- Protected from flood waters
- General type and construction of each building
- Major value of the process equipment
- Control rooms
Bulk Storage Facilities:
- Cone roof, floating roof, spheres, and horizontal tanks
- Open vents or pressure-vacuum vents and flame arrestor assemblies
- Floating roof tanks have friction shunts
- Individual dikes, common dikes
- Foam protection
- Deluge water protection
- High and low level alarms
- Tanks gauged from a remote location
- Receives raw materials by pipeline, railroad, ship, or tank truck
- Products shipped by
- Truck Rack Ė top loading or bottom loading
- Pumps will start if the truck is not grounded to the rack
- Interlocks that shut down loading
- Railroad rack
- Rails are bonded together
- Spur tracks are isolated from the main line with insulated joints
- Loading rack and the spur are bonded together with a common path to ground
- Ship dock
- Major warehousing buildings
- Storage commodities and storage arrangements
- Public utility or generated at the plant
- Power company
- How dependable is the power?
- Incoming voltage
- How the power is stepped down?
- Primary substations
- Number, location and size (kw rating) of the major transformers
- How the transformers are cooled (oil, etc.)
- Do the transformers contain PCBís?
- If oil cooled, is the transformer area diked?
- Transformers in stand-by service
- Will a transformer fire expose the power house or the process area?
- Electrical power distributed (overhead or underground)
- List number of substations
- What area does each substation control?
- Are the substations interconnected?
- Describe the generators and their drivers
- Make, size, manufacturer of the generator
- How critical is the electrical power?
- Maximum time that a power failure can exist without shutting down dependent processes
- Is electrical equipment classified?
- Emergency power
- Oil pressure for oil lubrication systems on large generators
- Oil flash point
- Capacity of the oil reservoir
- Reservoir located
- Containment features for spills or leaks
- Generator driven by; make and HP of drivers
- Safety devices provided for the turbogenerator units; do they initiate alarm, shutdown or both
- Fire protection for generators (CO2, etc.)
- Steam is used for (heating, process, etc.)
- Plantís steam demand
- Effect on the production if the largest boiler is lost
- Describe each boiler; manufacturer Describe each boiler; manufacturer
- Rated capacity in pounds of steam per hour
- Rated pressure in psi
- Boilers are fire tube or water tube
- Fuel the burners burn (oil, gas, coal, or a combination of fuels)
- Boiler safety controls; alarm only or alarm and shutdown
- Flame out, high pressure, low water, and low fuel controls
- Can the controls be manually by-passed when you have flame out?
- Do controls close the fuel line automatically?
- How often are steam boilers shut down for inspection?
- For oil fired boilers; size of the tank; tank construction and location; grade of oil; oil heated before going to burner
- For coal fired; description of pulverizers; fire detection/protection systems; electrostatic precipitators
- Units producing waste heat steam; size in steam per hour and psi
- Number of instruments and number of plant air compressors
- For large units list the rating of each compressor in SCFM and psi
- Compressors are driven (steam, electric, gasoline, gas)
- Where is the air used?
- Air into common storage tank or does each compressor have itís own tank?
- Air driers to remove moisture and what material is used for the air driers (silicagel, etc.)
- If more than one air compressor, do they need all the air compressors?
- Plant instrumentation; electric or pneumatic?
- If pneumatic valves; fail-safe characteristics
- If computer, open or closed loops
- Backup instrumentation available
- Plant fuel system; plant gas, purchased gas, oil, coal, or a combination of the four are used by the plant for fuel
- Identify the heaters that burn gas, oil, or coal
- Indicate if the mix drum has a high liquid level alarm and an automatic pump out
- Indicate if there is a knock-out drum between the refinery gas producers and the fuel gas system
- Knock-out drum has a high-liquid level alarm and an automatic pump out
- Gas fired heaters provided with small knock-out pots to remove water and residual carry over liquids
- For facilities utilizing coal, describe conveyors, crusher houses, storage silos, trippers and dust collection system; housekeeping; construction; proper electric; spare belts; explosion venting; metal separators
Cooling and Process Water:
- Cooling water system is once in and out system or a recirculating system
- Describe the cooling towers indicating the units that receive cooling water from each
- Construction of the cooling towers, and the number of cells; cross flow or counter flow?
- Tower fans equipped with vibrating alarms and shutdowns
- Does the tower have gas detection?
- Describe the source of the plantís process water
- List each flare separately indicating whether it is a ground level or a high level flare
- How high is the flare stack
- For ground level flare stacks, determine if it is diked
- Note the prevailing wind direction (flame blows away from plant)
- List the units that the flare services
- Does the flare have a continuous, automatic pilot light burning
- Knock-out drum has a high level alarm and automatic pump
- How often is the liquid level in the knock-out drum checked?
- Does the flare system have a water seal? If yes, is it steamed traced to prevent freezing?
- Describe critical exhaust and ventilation systems in a manufacturing plant
- Explosion Relief walls and panel in areas employing volatile and low flash point material under this section
Maintenance and Housekeeping:
Control and Ignition Sources
- Plantís maintenance Ė good, fair, or poor
- Maintenance; equipment inspection and repair
- Care and cleanliness
- Comments concerning the inventory of expensive and hard to obtain spare parts
- Formalized preventative maintenance program in effect; records kept?
- Inspection and test procedures for fire protection equipment
- Frequency of inspections and tests
- Are inspections documented and kept on file
- Provide details of permit programs
- Who is responsible to implementation of the program(s)?
- Are permits issued valid for more than one shift?
- Is a fire watch provided during hot work?
- Are gas tests conducted before work begins?
- Discuss managementís policy
- Describe grounding and bonding systems
- Inspected for integrity and resistance
Metal Inspection and Relief Valve Testing:
- Metal inspection department exist?
- Equipment to do destructive metal testing
- Type of testing done such as vital, ultrasonic, maganflux, dye-penetrant, audigape, radiography, drill and cipher method, electric calipers, x-rays, etc.
- Isotopes in their instruments, type of isotopes, and is it radioactive material
- Hydro testing on equipment done up to 1.5 the operating pressure
- Use inert gas testing for hydrostatic testing instead of water?
- Type of records that are kept; on stream inspection work; frequency of unit shut down for inspection
- If the plant does not have and inspection department and employs and outside service company, name of service
- Internal and external tank inspection schedule
- How often the relief valves are bench tested
- How often are the flame arrestors removed from their housing and cleaned
- Block valves are installed under relief valves, describe precautions observed to prevent block valves being accidentally closed
- Rupture disk, find out how often it is checked
Emergency Organization and Procedures:
- Special training employees are given
- Classroom training, on-the-job or both
- Written exam
- Refresher training
- Safety committees or organizations in effect at the facility
- Contingency plans for fire, explosion, windstorm, bomb threats, etc.
- Plans documented
- Separate manuals concerning the emergency shutdown procedures to follow in the event there is a loss of electrical power, steam power, instrumentation, or cooling water written
- How are employees trained in these procedures?
- Do they have a written or oral examination?
- Do the employees have to walk and draw diagrams of the instrument systems, the steam lines, and the electrical systems?
- Are the exams repeated annually?
- Describe the first brigade
- Total number of trained firemen; number of firemen on duty each shift
- Information about the training that the employees have received
- How the off duty workers are summoned
- Mutual aid organization that the risk belongs to
- Equipment, manpower, and chemicals available
- Size of the city water mains
- Location; number of city hydrants
- Fire mains are looped or dead-end
- Meter size and type
- Fire department paid or volunteer
- Amount of water available
- ISO rating of city
- Name and location of nearest public fire department
Private Fire Water Protection:
- Dead-ended, looped, sectionalized
- Diameters of water main
- Number of hydrants
- Fire water pumps (manufacturer, type, rating in gpm, pressure in psi, driver of each fire water pump)
- Capacity of fire water tanks or fire water reservoir
- Capacity in gpm of water make-up supply to water tanks
- Construction of fire water tank
- How is tank filled?
- Fire water tank heated in the winter? How do they prevent water from freezing?
- If fire water pumps automatic starting, give pressure maintained in fire system, pressure that the pump will start
- If fire water system is pressurized by the process water system, describe
- Make a fire water test of each pump, submit with water flow curves
Quick Action Hose Reels:
- Inventory and location of the fire hose of the plant
- Number, length, and diameter of the quick action hose reels
Plant Fire Truck:
- Manufacturer, give rated pumping capacity (gpm), amount of hose, nozzles, and other equipment carried on the truck
Sprinkler Protection, Buildings:
- Buildings protected with automatic sprinkler systems
- Type of sprinkler system; wet or dry; hydraulic designed
- Supervision; type of supervision such as water flow, valve tamper, temperature, low air pressure
- Hydraulic design of system if available
Deluge Water Systems:
- Indicate buildings protected by a deluge water system
- Hydraulic design
- Manually operated or automatic; actuated by pilot heads or rate of rise heat detectors
- Size and manufacturer of the preacton valve
- If manual operation, distance between the control valve and the protected hazard
Percentage of foam
Type of foam concentration
Number of gallons
What it protects
Foam concentration in gallons
Foam is proportioned by a pump, (manufacturer, gpm, and pressure of the pump)
Foam is applied by means of foam chambers or subsurface injection
Foam-Water Sprinkler Systems:
Portable Foam Towers:
- Number, diameter, height, type, and make of foam towers
- Number of foam applicators
- How often foam towers are raised into place during practice training sessions
Steam Smothering Protection:
- Equipment protected by steam smothering systems
- Distance between control valve and equipment being protected
- Any fire lances
Fixed Extinguishing Systems:
Describe, manufacturer, type, size in pounds, how actuated, what is protected
Will system shutdown anything?
Flammable Gas Detectors:
- Areas supervised by the gas detectors
- Lower explosive limit (LEL) for alarm; the LEL for shutdown of equipment; is one or two detectors necessary for the emergency shutdown of the equipment
- Will system actuate a deluge water system?
Smoke and/or Heat Detectors:
- Areas supervised by these detectors
- Alarm local or supervised by an annunciator panel
- Quantity and distribution of hand extinguishers
- Large wheeled units
- Serviced by plant people, how often inspected, how often they are dumped and recharged
- Details of the fire alarm system and its maintenance
- List other alarms, public pull boxes, sprinkler alarms, fixed extinguishing systems, flammable gas, UV and smoke detectors
- Plantís Security Department (total number of men and number of guards on duty each shift)
- Watchman make hourly rounds, and does he punch a clock?
- List other types of security protection, electric eyes, ultrasonic systems, plant fenced, person at the gate
Plant Fireproofing Summary :
- Describe fireproofing here
- Fire boats, capacity, pressure of fire water pumps, inventory of foam concentrate
Refinery and Petrochemical Process Descriptions:
Describe each process unit :
- Flow description
- Who designed the unit?
- Who built the unit?
- Design capacity (barrels)
- Daily charge (barrels)
- Maximum temperature and pressure
- Major hazards and safeguards
- Possibilities of flow reversals, relief discharges, hazardous and reactive chemicals
- Special materials of construction
- High level controls on scrubbers
- Type of catalyst
- Inventory of catalyst
- Daily catalyst make-up
- Who manufactured the catalyst?
- Affluent heated by water, type of heater
- How often does the heater come down for metal inspection?
- Fire box have steam snuffing?
- Stack have steam snuffing?
- Can steam be injected into the tubes?
- Can heater be isolated?
- Location of steam snuffing controls
- Vessels relieve to the atmosphere or a closed system
- How are the vessels protected (rupture disk system-alloy of relief line)
- Report the alloy of all equipment utilizing cryogenic temperature
- Classified electrical equipment
- Plant fireproofing details
- Vertical and horizontal supports of the pipe rack are fireproofed
Process Description for Petrochemical:
- Straight line diagram of each process, indicating the maximum temperature (F), maximum pressure (PSI), the major hazards and safeguards, and whether the process is batch or continuous
- Major raw materials
- Who supplies raw materials?
- How are the raw materials received and stored?
- Average amount of raw materials of each they use daily, weekly, monthly
- What products are made?
- Production figures
- How they store finished products
- How they ship the products
- Processes are exothermic or endothermic
- If exothermic, how is the reaction controlled and how is it cooled; auxiliary cooling system?
- Shut-down procedure
- Can the process reach a point of decomposition?
- If endothermic, how is heat from reaction supplied?
- How is the process protected from boil over?
- Where are the dowtherm boilers located?
- Type of dowtherm used
- Do the dowtherm boilers expose the process area?
- How are the dowtherm lines supported?
- Describe combustion safeguards on dowtherm boilers
- Special equipment, glass lined reactors, stainless steel reactors or piping, special alloys, pyrex or glass piping, etc.
- How easy is it to get replacement parts for special equipment?
- After they make desired product, does it have to be separated by distillation, gravity, filtering, etc.?
- If distillation, find out how the still is heated (hot oil, steam, open fire, etc.)
- If they have a refrigeration system, find out what they use for cooling (ammonia system, recirculating brime, etc.)
- Used for, how long can the refrigeration system be shut down before the product stands to spoil?
- What do they do if the product spoils?
- Drying ovens; are the ovens fired (gas, steam, electrical, etc.)?
- Ovens automatically shut-off temperature; does the oven automatically start or have to be manually reset?
- Does the system ring an alarm when the drivers shut off?
- Describe any safety features
- Reactor vessels
- Relieve to the atmospheres or to a closed system
- Vessel capacities maximum rates pressure
- How they are supported (concrete pad, exposed steel supports, etc.)
- Protected (rupture disk or relief valve); size and pressure of rupture disk
- If system relieves to a closed system, find out the size and the alloy of the relief line
- Gas utilities having LNG or SNG processed
- Details of major rotating equipment (i.e. compressors, expanders); their safeguards, vaporizers and their combustion controls
- Construction details of cryogenic storage tanks such as alloy, insulation, relief valves, vacuum protections, etc.
- Location of nearest busy airport